Showing posts with label Gammar Topics. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Gammar Topics. Show all posts

Monday, October 19, 2020


Capitalization or capitalisation is writing a word with its first letter as a capital letter and the remaining letters in lower case, in writing systems with a case distinction. The term also may refer to the choice of the casing applied to text.

Capitalization means using a capital letter (for example, A instead of a). The use of capital letters helps readers read your writing without confusion.

Click Here : "English Grammar Rules"

Always capitalize the following:

  • The first word in a sentence.
  • I grew up in India.
  • She left a message on my phone.

The pronoun I.

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  • This country is where I dreamed of.
The first letter of a proper noun (specific name).
  • David wants to play soccer with us.
  • This letter is from Chang.

  • I graduated from the University of New York.
  • I like Coca-Cola.
  • She likes Godiva chocolates.

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The first letter of months, days, and holidays (but not seasons).

  • Today is June 8, 2011.
  • Susie’s birthday is this Thursday.
  • The shops are closed on Easter.
  • This summer is going to be very hot.

Read Also: Advanced English Grammar with Answers Book

The first letter of nationalities, religions, races of people, and languages.

  • We often eat Italian food.
  • I want to master many languages, such as Spanish, Korean, Chinese, and Russian.
  • There is one Christian church in my town.

The first letter in a person’s title.

  • This is Dr. Simon.
  • I got it from Mr. Tom.

Read Also: Comparative and Superlative Adjectives

Geographic areas: cities, states, countries, mountains, oceans, rivers, etc.

  • My destination is Paris, France.
  • Hawaii is in the middle of the Pacific Ocean.

Historical periods.

  • The Renaissance began in the 14th century.
  • The Qing Dynasty is the last dynasty in China.

The first letter of each major word in the title of a book, movie, article, etc.

  • Tolstoy’s War and Peace is my favorite novel.
  • I found the article “How to Write a Good Cover Letter” in this magazine.

Read Also: Latest English WhatsApp Group Links

Saturday, October 17, 2020


An interjection is a word or expression that occurs as an utterance on its own and expresses a spontaneous feeling or reaction. It is a diverse category, encompassing many different parts of speech, such as exclamations, curses, greetings, response particles, hesitation markers and other words.



Click Here : "English Grammar Rules"

An interjection is a word that expresses some kind of emotion. It can be used as filler. Interjections do not have a grammatical function in the sentence and are not related to the other parts of the sentence. If an interjection is omitted, the sentence still makes sense. It can stand alone.

  • Ouch! That hurts.
  • Well, I need a break.
  • Wow! What a beautiful dress!

When you are expressing a strong emotion, use an exclamation mark (!). A comma (,) can be used for a weaker emotion.

Read Also : English Grammar Quizzes

Interjections do the following:

1.Express a feeling—wow, gee, oops, darn, geez, oh:

  • Oops, I’m sorry. That was my mistake.
  • Geez! Do I need to do it again?
  • Oh, I didn’t know that.

Read Also: Top 10 Biggest Social Media Sites in 2020

2.Say yes or no—yes, no, nope:

  • Yes! I will do it!
  • No, I am not going to go there.
  • Nope. That’s not what I want.

Read Also: Advanced English Grammar with Answers Book

3.Call attention—yo, hey:

  • Yo, will you throw the ball back?
  • Hey, I just wanted to talk to you about the previous incident.

Read Also: Latest English WhatsApp Group Links

4.Indicate a pause—well, um, hmm:

  • Well, what I meant was nothing like that.
  • Um, here is our proposal.
  • Hmm. You really need to be on a diet.

Read Also: Comparative and Superlative Adjectives

Friday, October 16, 2020

 Indefinite and Definite Articles

The definite article (the) is used before a noun to indicate that the identity of the noun is known to the reader. The indefinite article (a, an) is used before a noun that is general or when its identity is not known. There are certain situations in which a noun takes no article.

Indefinite and Definite Articles
Click Here : "English Grammar Rules"

The words a, an, and the are special adjectives called articles.

Indefinite Articles—a, an

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an—used before singular count nouns beginning with a vowel (a, e, i, o, u) or vowel sound:

an apple, an elephant, an issue, an orange

a—used before singular count nouns beginning with consonants (other than a, e, i, o, u):

a stamp, a desk, a TV, a cup, a book

Definite Article—the

Can be used before singular and plural, count and non-count nouns

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1. Indefinite Article (a, an)

Used before singular nouns that are unspecified:

  • a pencil
  • an orange

Used before number collectives and some numbers:

  • a dozen
  • a gallon

Used before a singular noun followed by a restrictive modifier:

  • a girl who was wearing a yellow hat

Used with nouns to form adverbial phrases of quantity, amount, or degree:

  • I felt a bit depressed.

Read Also: Advanced English Grammar with Answers Book

2. Definite Article (the)

Used to indicate a noun that is definite or has been previously specified in the context:

  • Please close the door.
  • I like the clothes you gave me.

Used to indicate a noun that is unique:

  • Praise the Lord!
  • The Columbia River is near here.

Used to designate a natural phenomenon:

  • The nights get shorter in the summer.
  • The wind is blowing so hard.

Used to refer to a time period:

  • I was very na├»ve in the past.
  • This song was very popular in the 1980s.

Used to indicate all the members of a family:

  • I invited the Bakers for dinner.
  • This medicine was invented by the Smiths.

Read Also: Latest English WhatsApp Group Links

Wednesday, October 14, 2020

 Conjunctive Adverbs

A conjunctive adverb, adverbial conjunction, or subordinating adverb is an adverb that connects two clauses by converting the clause it introduces into an adverbial modifier of the verb in the main clause. For example, in "I told him; thus, he knows" and "I told him. Thus, he knows", "thus" is a conjunctive adverb.


Conjunctive adverbs are words that join independent clauses into one sentence. A conjunctive adverb helps you create a shorter sentence.

Click Here : "English Grammar Rules"

When you use a conjunctive adverb, put a semicolon (;) before it and a comma (,) after it.

  • We have many different sizes of this shirt; however, it comes in only one color.

Some examples of conjunctive adverbs are: accordingly, also, besides, consequently, finally, however, indeed, instead, likewise, meanwhile, moreover, nevertheless, next, otherwise, still, therefore, then, etc.

  • The due date for the final paper has passed; therefore, I could not submit mine on time.
  • There are many history books; however, none of them may be accurate.
  • It rained hard; moreover, lightening flashed and thunder boomed.
  • The baby fell asleep; then, the doorbell rang.
  • The law does not permit drinking and driving anytime; otherwise, there would be many more accidents.

Conjunctive adverbs look like coordinating conjunctions (and, but, or, so, for, yet, nor); however, they are not as strong as coordinating conjunctions and they are punctuated differently.

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A conjunctive adverb is also used in a single main clause. In this case, a comma (,) is used to separate the conjunctive adverb from the sentence.

  • I woke up very late this morning. Nevertheless, I wasn’t late to school.
  • She didn’t take a bus to work today. Instead, she drove her car.
  • Jack wants a toy car for his birthday. Meanwhile, Jill wants a dollhouse for her birthday.
  • They returned home. Likewise, I went home.

Read More:

Monday, October 12, 2020

 Subordinating Conjunctions

A subordinating clause is a part of a sentence that adds additional information to the main clause. A subordinating conjunction is simply the word/words that is used to join a subordinating clause to another clause or sentence.

Subordinating Conjunctions.jpg-ksc smart guide

Subordinating Conjunctions.jpg-ksc smart guide

Click Here : "English Grammar Rules"

Subordinating Conjunctions

1.Although—means "in spite of the fact that":

Although it was raining, I ran home.

She showed up, although she felt sick.

Although my mom told me to come home early, I stayed out late.

2.After—indicates "subsequently to the time when":

Please text me after you arrive at the shopping mall.

We were forced to stop watching TV after the electricity went out.

I always tell my daughter that she can have dessert after she eats her dinner.

3.Before—indicates "earlier than the time that":

He had written a living will before he died.

Before he contacted me, I was going to call him.

I need to finish the dishes before my wife gets home.

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4.Because—means "for the reason that":

Because he was smart and worked hard, he was able to make a lot of money.

They stopped building the house because it was pouring.

I love dogs because they are so cute.

5.How—means "the way in which":

I wonder how you did it.

He explained how he completed it in a few days.

Can you show me how you fixed the computer?

6.If—means "in the event that":

If it is sunny tomorrow, we can go to the beach.

If I receive a promotion, you will be the first to know.

You can watch TV if you finish your homework.

7.Once—indicates "at the moment when":

Once you see him, you will recognize him.

Once the light came on, we all shouted with joy.

Call me once you start having contractions.

8.Since—means "from the time when":

I’ve been a singer since I was young.

Since he graduated, he has been doing nothing.

This building has been remodeled three times since I lived here.

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9.So that—means "in order to":

So that she could keep her position, she didn’t complain at all.

He finished his work as fast as possible so that he could leave early.

He worked harder for a raise so he could buy a nice car.

10.Until—means "up to the time that":

Don’t go anywhere until I come back.

She didn’t realize her talent in painting until her teacher mentioned it.

They won’t allow us to sit until everyone arrives.

11.Unless—means "except, on the condition":

You will not pass the exam unless you get a score of 80 or higher.

I will not tell you anything unless you tell me what you know first.

Unless you ask her, you will never know.

12.When—means "at that time":

When I came in the room, everyone looked at me.

I woke up when my baby was crying.

I started looking for a gas station when my gas light went on.

Read Also: Count Nouns vs Non-Count Nouns

13.While—means "during the time":

Someone called you while you were at the meeting.

We met while we were working at the University.

My dog started barking while I was talking on the phone.

14.Where—indicates "in the place":

This is where I came from.

Please tell me where you are going.

I need to know where John hid the present.

15.Whether—means "if it is true or not":

We will have a picnic whether it rains or not.

It is time to decide whether we should take action.

You need to decide whether or not you are hungry.

Read Also: Comparative and Superlative Adjectives

 Coordinating Conjunctions and Correlative Conjunctions

One type of conjunction is the coordinating conjunction, which joins two or more elements of equal importance in a sentence. ... Other types of conjunctions include correlative conjunctions, which are pairs of conjunctions that join two elements of equal importance in a sentence.

Coordinating Conjunctions and Correlative Conjunctions

Coordinating Conjunctions and Correlative Conjunctions

Click Here : "English Grammar Rules"

A conjunction joins words or groups of words in a sentence.

  • I ate lunch with Kate and Derma.
  • Because it is rainy today, the trip is canceled.
  • She didn’t press the bell, but I did.

There are three types of conjunctions:

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1.Coordinating Conjunctions

     a.Connect words, phrases, or clauses that are independent or equal

     b.and, but, or, so, for, yet, and not

2.Correlative Conjunctions

     a.Used in pairs

     b.both/and, either/or, neither/nor, not only/but also

3.Subordinating Conjunctions

     a.Used at the beginning of subordinate clauses

     b.although, after, before, because, how, if, once, since, so that, until, unless, when, while, where, whether, etc.

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Coordinating Conjunctions

1.And—means "in addition to":

We are going to a zoo and an aquarium on the same day.

2.But—connects two different things that are not in agreement:

I am a night owl, but she is an early bird.

3.Or—indicates a choice between two things:

Do you want a red one or a blue one?

4.So—illustrates a result of the first thing:

This song has been very popular, so I downloaded it.

5.For—means "because":

I want to go there again, for it was a wonderful trip.

6.Yet—indicates contrast with something:

He performed very well, yet he didn’t make the final cut.

Correlative Conjunctions

Advanced English Grammar with Answers Book


She won gold medals from both the single and group races.

Both TV and television are correct words.


I am fine with either Monday or Wednesday.

You can have either apples or pears.


He enjoys neither drinking nor gambling.

Neither you nor I will get off early today.

4.Not only/but also

Not only red but also green looks good on you.

She got the perfect score in not only English but also math.

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Saturday, October 10, 2020

 Prepositions "With," "Over," and "By"

Prepositions are words that link a noun, pronoun, or noun phrase to some other part of the sentence. Prepositions can be tricky for English learners. There is no definite rule or formula for choosing a preposition.

Prepositions-english grammar

Prepositions "With," "Over," and "By"

Click Here : "English Grammar Rules"


Used to indicate being together or being involved:

  • I ordered a sandwich with a drink.
  • He was with his friend when he saw me.
  • She has been working with her sister at the nail shop.
  • The manager will be with you shortly.

Read Also: Comparative and Superlative Adjectives

Used to indicate "having":

  • I met a guy with green eyes.
  • Were you the one talking with an accent?
  • People with a lot of money are not always happy.

Used to indicate "using":

  • I wrote a letter with the pen you gave me.
  • This is the soup that I made with rice and barley.
  • He cut my hair with his gold scissors.

Used to indicate feeling:

  • I am emailing you with my sincere apology.
  • He came to the front stage with confidence.

Used to indicate agreement or understanding:

  • Are you with me?
  • Yes, I am completely with you.
  • She agrees with me.

Read Also : English Grammar Quizzes


Used to indicate movement from one place to another:

  • Come over to my house for dinner sometime.
  • Could you roll over?
  • They sent over a gift for his promotion.

Used to indicate movement downward:

  • The big tree fell over on the road.
  • Can you bend over and get the dish for me?
  • He pushed it over the edge.

Used to indicate more than an expected number or amount:

  • This amount is over our prediction.
  • Kids twelve and over can watch this movie.
  • The phone rang for over a minute.

Used to indicate a period of time:

  • I worked there over a year.
  • She did not sleep there over this past month.

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Used to indicate proximity:

  • Can I sit by you?
  • He was standing by me.
  • The post office is by the bank.

Used to indicate the person that does something in a passive voice sentence:

  • The microwave was fixed by the mechanic.
  • The flowers were delivered by a postman.
  • The branch office was closed by the head office.

Used to indicate an action with a particular purpose:

  • You can pass the exam by preparing for it.
  • I expressed my feeling toward her by writing a letter.
  • She finally broke the record by pure effort.

Used to indicate a mean or method:

  • Please send this package to Russia by airmail.
  • I came here by subway.

Thursday, October 8, 2020

 Prepositions "Of," "To," and "For"

Prepositions are often confusing for English learners, especially when one preposition can have more than one meaning. Today we look at the prepositions for, of and to and three of their possible meanings.


Click Here : "English Grammar Rules"


Used for belonging to, relating to, or connected with:

  • The secret of this game is that you can’t ever win.
  • The highlight of the show is at the end.
  • The first page of the book describes the author’s profile.
  • Don’t touch it. That’s the bag of my friend’s sister.
  • I always dreamed of being rich and famous.
  • Of usually shows a connection or belonging.
  • Is she a friend of yours?
  • This is a photo of my wife.
  • A glass of wine.

Read Also: Comparative and Superlative Adjectives

Used to indicate reference:

  • I got married in the summer of 2000.
  • This is a picture of my family.
  • I got a discount of 10 percent on the purchase.

Used to indicate an amount or number:

  • I drank three cups of milk.
  • A large number of people gathered to protest.
  • I had only four hours of sleep during the last two days.
  • He got a perfect score of 5 on his writing assignment.


Used to indicate the place, person, or thing that someone or something moves toward, or the direction of something:

  • I am heading to the entrance of the building.
  • The package was mailed to Mr. Kim yesterday.
  • All of us went to the movie theater.
  • Please send it back to me.
  • We're going to Malta next week.
  • Where are you going to buy your new shoes?
  • We ran to the end of the street.

Used to indicate a limit or an ending point:

  • The snow was piled up to the roof.
  • The stock prices rose up to 100 dollars.

Used to indicate relationship:

  • This letter is very important to your admission.
  • My answer to your question is in this envelop.
  • Do not respond to every little thing in your life.

Used to indicate a time or a period:

  • I work nine to six, Monday to Friday.
  • It is now 10 to five. (In other words, it is 4:50.)

Read Also : English Grammar Quizzes


Used to indicate the use of something:

  • This place is for exhibitions and shows.
  • I baked a cake for your birthday.
  • I put a note on the door for privacy.
  • She has been studying hard for the final exam.
  • We need new batteries for the remote control.
  • These drinks are for after work.
  • We use it for cutting grass.

Used to mean because of:

  • I am so happy for you.
  • We feel deeply sorry for your loss.
  • For this reason, I’ve decided to quit this job.

Used to indicate time or duration:

  • He’s been famous for many decades.
  • I attended the university for one year only.
  • This is all I have for today.

Read Also: Top 10 Biggest Social Media Sites in 2020

Wednesday, October 7, 2020

 Prepositions "On," "At," and "In"

A preposition is a word that links a noun, pronoun, or noun phrase to some other part of the sentence.

When English speakers talk about time and place, there are three little words that often come up: in, on, and at. These common words are prepositions that show a relationship between two words in a sentence. ... For describing time and place, the prepositions in, on, and at go from general to specific.



Prepositions can be tricky for English learners. There is no definite rule or formula for choosing a preposition. In the beginning stage of learning the language, you should try to identify a preposition when reading or listening in English and recognize its usage.

  • to the office
  • at the desk
  • on the table
  • in an hour
  • about myself

A preposition is used to show direction, location, or time, or to introduce an object.

Here are a few common prepositions and examples.


  • Used to point out specific time:
  • I will meet you at 12 p.m.
  • The bus will stop here at 5:45 p.m.

Used to indicate a place:

  • There is a party at the club house.
  • There were hundreds of people at the park.
  • We saw a baseball game at the stadium.

Used to indicate an email address:

  • Please email me at
  • Used to indicate an activity:
  • He laughed at my acting.
  • I am good at drawing a portrait.

Specific Time

  • At 5 o’clock
  • At 12.30 am
  • At sunset
  • At the moment
  • At sunrise
  • At bedtime
  • At noon
  • At dinnertime


Used for unspecific times during a day, month, season, year:

  • She always reads newspapers in the morning.
  • In the summer, we have a rainy season for three weeks.
  • The new semester will start in March.

Used to indicate a location or place:

  • She looked me directly in the eyes.
  • I am currently staying in a hotel.
  • My hometown is Los Angeles, which is in California.

Used to indicate a shape, color, or size:

  • This painting is mostly in blue.
  • The students stood in a circle.
  • This jacket comes in four different sizes.

Used to express while doing something:

  • In preparing for the final report, we revised the tone three times.
  • A catch phrase needs to be impressive in marketing a product.

Used to indicate a belief, opinion, interest, or feeling:

  • I believe in the next life.
  • We are not interested in gambling.

Months, Years, long Periods

  • In the past/future
  • In 1980
  • In the 1970s
  • In the next century
  • In April
  • In the Ice Age
  • In the winter
  • In summer


Used to express a surface of something:

  • I put an egg on the kitchen table.
  • The paper is on my desk.

Used to specify days and dates:

  • The garbage truck comes on Wednesdays.
  • I was born on the 14th day of June in 1988.

Used to indicate a device or machine, such as a phone or computer:

  • He is on the phone right now.
  • She has been on the computer since this morning.
  • My favorite movie will be on TV tonight.

Used to indicate a part of the body:

  • The stick hit me on my shoulder.
  • He kissed me on my cheek.
  • I wear a ring on my finger.

Used to indicate the state of something:

  • Everything in this store is on sale.
  • The building is on fire.

Days and Dates

  • On Saturday
  • On Tuesdays
  • On 9 May
  • On 12 April 2012
  • On my birthday
  • On New Year’s Eve
  • On Independent Day
  • On Cristmas Day

Tuesday, October 6, 2020

 Auxiliary Verbs "Can/Could" and "May/Might/Must"

  • Can. Can – for ability. I can dance Tango. ...
  • Could. Could – past ability. I could run ten kilometers when I was younger. ...
  • May. May – for formal permission. May I come in? ...
  • Might. Might – for possibility. The electrician might be finished by tomorrow. ...
  • Must. Must – to express a formal request or necessity.

Read More:

Infinitives Part 1- English Grammar Topics

English Grammar Rules

English Grammar Quizzes

Comparative and Superlative Adjectives

Advanced English Grammar with Answers Book


Used to express ability (to be able to do something):

  • I can make jewelry.
  • He can’t speak French.
  • Can you open this jar?

Used to ask for permission:

  • Can I use your bathroom?
  • Can I leave now?
  • Can I raise the volume?

Used to make requests or suggestions:

  • Can I have more napkins?
  • Can I have the bill?
  • You can take this spot if you like.
  • You can do whatever you want.

Could (past form of can)

Describes an ability that someone had in the past:

  • I could swim when I was young.
  • You could see the boat sinking.
  • They could tell he was nervous.

Often used in auxiliary functions to express permission politely:

  • Could I take this jacket with me?
  • You could borrow my umbrella.
  • Could you please let me pass you?
  • Could I get you more water?

Used to express possibility:

  • All of them could ride in the van.
  • You could always stay at our house.
  • Could it be true?
  • This plan could really work out.

Read Also: Latest English WhatsApp Group Links


Used to ask for formal permission:

  • May I come in?
  • May I say something now?
  • May I ask one question?

Used to suggest something that is possible:

  • She may agree with this plan.
  • They may not be happy about what happened.
  • It may shower tonight.

Might (past form of may)

Used to suggest a smaller possibility than may does (actually, might is more common than may in American English):

  • He might have finished it.
  • I might go see a doctor.
  • I might not come this time.
  • It might be right.
  • You might have lost it.
  • The store might have been closed today.

Click Here to Active Voice and Passive Voice Quiz


Used to express something formally required or necessary:

  • I must complete the project by this week.
  • The government must provide health care for everybody.
  • Everyone must save the natural resources of the earth.
  • The building must have a fire alarm.
  • You must answer my question right now.

Used to show that something is very likely:

  • He must be a genius.
  • You must be joking!
  • There must be an accident.
  • She must be very tired.

Read Also: SPMU NHM AP Recruitment 2020

Monday, October 5, 2020

 Auxiliary Verbs "Will/Would" and "Shall/Should"

The verbs will, would, shall, should, can, could, may, might, and must cannot be the main (full) verbs alone. They are used as auxiliary verbs only and always need a main verb to follow.

Auxiliary Verbs-English grammar

Auxiliary Verbs-English grammar

Read More:

Infinitives Part 1- English Grammar Topics

English Grammar Rules

English Grammar Quizzes

Comparative and Superlative Adjectives

Advanced English Grammar with Answers Book


Used to express desire, preference, choice, or consent:

  • I will take this duty.
  • Will you stop talking like that?

Used to express the future:

  • It will rain tomorrow.
  • The news will spread soon.

Used to express capacity or capability:

  • This bucket will hold two gallons of water.
  • This airplane will take 200 passengers.

Used to express determination, insistence, or persistence:

  • I will do it as you say.

Would (past form of will)

Often used in auxiliary functions with rather to express preference:

  • I would rather go shopping today.
  • We’d rather say something than stay quiet.

Used to express a wish or desire:

  • I would like to have one more pencil.

Used to express contingency or possibility:

  • If I were you, I would be so happy.

Used to express routine or habitual things:

  • Normally, we would work until 6 p.m.

Read Also: Latest English WhatsApp Group Links


Mainly used in American English to ask questions politely (it has more usages in British English). For the future tense, will is more frequently used in American English than shall.

  • Shall we dance?
  • Shall I go now?
  • Let’s drink, shall we?

Often used in formal settings to deliver obligation or requirement:

  • You shall abide by the law.
  • There shall be no trespassing on this property.
  • Students shall not enter this room.

Should (past form of shall)

Often used in auxiliary functions to express an opinion, suggestion, preference, or idea:

  • You should rest at home today.
  • I should take a bus this time.
  • He should be more thoughtful in the decision-making process.

Click Here to Active Voice and Passive Voice Quiz

Used to express that you wish something had happened but it didn’t or couldn’t (should + have + past participle):

  • You should have seen it. It was really beautiful.
  • I should have completed it earlier to meet the deadline.
  • We should have visited the place on the way.

Used to ask for someone’s opinion:

  • What should we do now?
  • Should we continue our meeting?
  • Should we go this way?
  • Where should we go this summer?

Used to say something expected or correct:

  • There should be an old city hall building here.
  • Everybody should arrive by 6 p.m.
  • We should be there this evening.

Read Also: SPMU NHM AP Recruitment 2020

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