Wednesday, September 30, 2020

 Infinitives Part 1

An infinitive is a verb combined with the word to. Most often, an infinitive acts as a noun in the sentence. Less frequently, it acts as an adjective or an adverb.

Learning to use gerunds and infinitives can feel a bit overwhelming at first. The good news is that our three-part tutorial gives you twenty gerund and infinitive tips to take you from beginner to pro. Here in part 1, we introduce gerunds and infinitives and explain the basics of everyday usage.

Infinitives Part 1- English Grammar Topics

Infinitives Part 1- English Grammar Topics

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  • I want to go home early today.
  • I hope to be chosen as a member.
  • I prefer to go there earlier.
  • You need to consider various rules in writing sentences.
  • You have to explain your reasoning in detail.
  • You might wish to act as a teacher.
  • To leave for a vacation is my only wish at this time.
  • A common mistake in a relationship is not to trust the other person.
  • Help me to save the trees!
  • To be mentally healthy, you must read books.
  • Do you want me to fill out this form?
  • Here is our to-do list.
  • It was nice to meet you.
  • It is time to move on.
  • I am young enough to change my habits.
  • Don’t forget not to make grammar mistakes.
  • You are required to leave all your belongings here.
  • I came to see a doctor today.
  • You have to work harder to succeed.
  • I need to take three more classes to finish my graduate study.
  • I got closer to the speaker to listen clearly.
  • Be sure to check if you have tickets.
  • I am going to buy the new computer.

Read Also: Comparative and Superlative Adjectives

Generally, it is not common to split to and the verb except for when you want to emphasize the verb.

  • I want you to immediately stop doing that.
  • You have to seriously work hard to succeed.
  • You need to definitely explain your reasoning in detail.

Both gerunds and infinitives can be used as the subject or the complement of a sentence. However, as subjects or complements, gerunds usually sound more like normal, spoken English, whereas infinitives sound more abstract. In the following sentences, gerunds sound more natural and would be more common in everyday English. Infinitives emphasize the possibility or potential for something and sound more philosophical. If this sounds confusing, just remember that 90% of the time, you will use a gerund as the subject or complement of a sentence.

Examples:

Learning is important. normal subject

To learn is important. abstract subject - less common

The most important thing is learning. normal complement

The most important thing is to learn. abstract complement - less common

Read Also : English Grammar Quizzes

As the object of a sentence, it is more difficult to choose between a gerund or an infinitive. In such situations, gerunds and infinitives are not normally interchangeable. Usually, the main verb in the sentence determines whether you use a gerund or an infinitive.

Examples:

He enjoys swimming. "Enjoy" requires a gerund.

He wants to swim. "Want" requires an infinitive.

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Some verbs are followed by gerunds as objects. List of Verbs Followed by Gerunds

Examples:

She suggested going to a movie.

Mary keeps talking about her problems.


Some verbs are followed by infinitives. List of Verbs Followed by Infinitives

Examples:

She wants to go to a movie.

Mary needs to talk about her problems.

Tuesday, September 29, 2020

Gerunds

A gerund is any of various nonfinite verb forms in various languages; most often, but not exclusively, one that functions as a noun. In English, it has the properties of both verb and noun, such as being modifiable by an adverb and being able to take a direct object.

Gerunds-English Grammar Topics

Gerunds-English Grammar Topics

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A gerund (verb + ing) acts like a noun in a sentence.

Read Also: Comparative and Superlative Adjectives

  • Seeing is believing.
  • Running a marathon is not an easy thing to do.
  • Watching TV is sometimes harmful.
  • Eating is always fun.
  • My hobby is painting.
  • She loves babysitting her sister.
  • I like listening to music.
  • I wasted all my afternoon by taking a nap.
  • I am afraid of singing a song on a stage.

Read Also: Count Nouns vs Non-Count Nouns

Often, a possessive noun or pronoun comes before a gerund.

  • I hope that you don’t mind my using your pen.
  • Don’t be mad about my leaving early.
  • I don’t want you misunderstanding.
  • You will be amazed by my writing.

Read Also : English Grammar Quizzes

Only a gerund can follow these verbs:

admit, advise, avoid, be used to, can’t help, can’t stand, consider, deny, discuss, dislike, end up, enjoy, feel like, finish, forget, get used to, give up, go on, have difficulty, have problems, have trouble, imagine, it’s no use, it’s worthwhile, keep, look forward to, mention, mind, miss, recommend, remember, quit, spend time, stop, suggest, understand, waste time, work at

Read Also: Count Nouns vs Non-Count Nouns

Monday, September 28, 2020

Irregular Verbs

A regular verb is any verb whose conjugation follows the typical pattern, or one of the typical patterns, of the language to which it belongs. A verb whose conjugation follows a different pattern is called an irregular verb.

Irregular Verbs -english grammar

Irregular Verbs -english grammar

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Regular verbs form their past and past participle by adding ed (d).

Base Verb

Past

Past Participle

learn

learned

learned

study

studied

studied

cook

cooked

cooked

solve

solved

solved

ask

asked

asked

watch

watched

watched

listen

listened

listened

 

Read Also: Comparative and Superlative Adjectives

Irregular verbs do not have definite rules, but there are a few patterns.

Base Verb

Past

Past Participle

grow

grew

grown

know

knew

known

begin

began

begun

draw

drew

drawn

drive

drove

driven

fly

flew

flown

give

gave

given

speak

spoke

spoken

swim

swam

swum

go

went

gone

take

took

taken

find

found

found

spend

spent

spent

teach

taught

taught

pay

paid

paid

feel

felt

felt

buy

bought

bought

meet

met

met

have

had

had

feed

fed

fed

keep

kept

kept

cut

cut

cut

hit

hit

hit

set

set

set

shut

shut

shut

fit

fit

fit

 

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Saturday, September 26, 2020

Perfect Progressive Tense - English grammar

The perfect progressive tense describes actions that repeated over a period of time in the past, are continuing in the present, and/or will continue in the future.

Perfect Progressive Tense-Present perfect continuous

Perfect Progressive Tense-Present perfect continuous

The present perfect progressive tense tells you about a continuous action that was initiated in the past and finished at some point in the past; however, the action has some relation to the present time. Use have/has + been + ing.

  • It has been raining, and the street is still wet.
  • I have been running, and I am still tired.
  • She has been practicing the piano, and she is much better now.

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The past perfect progressive tense illustrates a continuous action in the past that was completed before another past action. Use had + been + ing.

  • It had been raining, and the street was still wet.
  • I had been running, and I was still tired.
  • She had been practicing the piano, and she had gotten much better.

The future perfect progressive tense indicates a continuous action that will be completed in the future. Use will + have + been + ing.

  • By tonight, it will have been raining several hours, and the street will be very wet.
  • By next summer, I will have been running for almost a year, and I will be fit and healthy.
  • By the time of the concert, she will have been practicing the piano for several months, and she will be much better.

Read Also: Comparative and Superlative Adjectives

Present perfect continuous - English grammar

Form

Affirmative: have/has been + present participle (verb + ing)

Negative: haven’t/hasn’t been + present participle (verb + ing)

Read Also: Count Nouns vs Non-Count Nouns

Meaning

Present perfect continuous is used to talk about an action/event that started in the past and is still happening now.

  • I’ve been waiting for over an hour. (I’m still waiting now)
  • It’s been snowing since 8am. (It’s still snowing now)

How long is often used in questions.

  • How long have you been learning English? (You started learning in the past and are still learning now)

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Present perfect continuous is used to talk about an activity/event that has recently finished and has a result or consequence now.

  • She’s tired because she’s been working hard.
  • I have no money left because I’ve been shopping.

Present perfect continuous is used to focus on the action and not on the completion of the action.

  • She’s been writing a book. (focus on the action)
  • She’s written a book. (Present perfect simple – focus on the result)
  • They’ve been negotiating the contract. (focus on the action, it’s not important if it’s finished or not)They’ve negotiated the contract. (focus on the result,the negotiation is finished)

When the action/event is more temporary we often use present perfect continuous. When it is more permanent we often use present perfect simple.

  • They’ve lived in Italy for many years. (Present perfect simple)
  • I’ve been living here for a month. (Present perfect continuous)

Friday, September 25, 2020

The Progressive and Perfect Tense indicates a continuous action that has been finished at some point in the past or that was initiated in the past and continues to happen. The action is usually of limited duration and has some current relevance: "She has been running and her heart is still beating fast." The present perfect progressive frequently is used to describe an event of the recent past; it is often accompanied by just in this usage: "It has just been raining."

Progressive Tense

The progressive tense involves action that is, was, or will be in progress at a certain time. In the progressive tense, verbs are formed with a "be" verb + ing.

Progressive and Perfect Tense-English grammar

Progressive and Perfect Tense

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run

I am running a marathon right now. (present progressive)

I was running a marathon at this time last year. (past progressive)

I will be running a marathon next Sunday. (future progressive)


eat

I am eating lunch now.

I was eating lunch when you saw me.

I will be eating lunch in the meeting.


learn

I am learning English at my desk.

I was learning English the last two years.

I will be learning English then.


cook

I am cooking my supper now.

I was cooking our dinner when you called me.

I will be cooking breakfast by the time you come home.

Read Also: Comparative and Superlative Adjectives

Perfect Tense

The present perfect tense describes an action that started in the past and continues to the present time. Use has/have + the past participle form of the verb.


The past perfect tense describes an action that started and ended in the past. Use had + the past participle form of the verb.


The future perfect tense describes future actions that will occur before some other action. Use will have + the past participle form of the verb.


run

I have run several marathons this year. (present perfect)

I had run many marathons in the past. (past perfect)

I will have run a marathon by the time I turn 30. (future perfect)


learn

I have learned a lot about English grammar this semester.

I had learned the basics of English grammar in elementary school.

I will have learned a lot about English grammar when I finish college.

Read Also: Count Nouns vs Non-Count Nouns

know

I have known her since I was young.

I had known her until she passed away.

I will have known her for 20 years next month.


cook

I have cooked supper every night this week.

I had cooked supper every night until the stove broke.

I will have cooked supper every night by the time this diet ends.

Singular

Plural

I have been walking

we have been walking

you have been walking

you have been walking

he/she/it has been walking

they have been walking


Singular

Plural

I have been sleeping

we have been sleeping

you have been sleeping

you have been sleeping

he/she/it has been sleeping

they have been sleeping

 

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Thursday, September 24, 2020

Simple Tense

The simple present, present simple or present indefinite is one of the verb forms associated with the present tense in modern English. It is commonly referred to as a tense, although it also encodes certain information about aspect in addition to present time.

Simple Tense: Learn about Adjectives in this post as part of English Grammar. See also other posts for more details. If possible try to find out for English Grammar Rules. The "English Grammar Rules" can be viewed through the following links.

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Verb tense tells you when the action happens. There are three main verb tenses: present, past, and future. Each main tense is divided into simple, progressive, perfect, and perfect progressive tenses.

Simple-Tense-English-grammar-topics

Simple Tense English Grammar Topics

Read Also: Comparative and Superlative Adjectives

Things to remember about simple tense:

     a. Present tense is the original verb form.

     b. Past tense has a few patterns.

     c. Future tense needs will (shall) + verb.

Click Here : Singular and Plural Nouns

run

  • I run a marathon twice a year. (present)
  • I ran a marathon last year. (past)
  • I will run a marathon next year. (future)

eat

  • I eat lunch in my office.
  • I ate lunch an hour ago.
  • I will eat lunch in one hour.

Click Here : Possessive Nouns

see

  • I see a movie once a week.
  • I saw a movie yesterday.
  • I will see a movie tomorrow.

know

  • I know it.
  • I knew it the day before yesterday.
  • I will know it by tomorrow.

learn

  • I learn English.
  • I learned English the last two years.
  • I will learn English next year.

cook

  • I cook my supper every night.
  • I cooked our dinner already.
  • I will cook breakfast tomorrow.

Tuesday, September 22, 2020

 Adverbs-EnglishGrammar Topics

Adverbs modify a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.

Adverbs: Learn about Adjectives in this post as part of English Grammar. See also other posts for more details. If possible try to find out for English Grammar Rules. The "English Grammar Rules" can be viewed through the following links.

Click Here : "English Grammar Rules"

Adverbs-English-Grammar-Topics
Adverbs-English-Grammar-Topics


An adverb tells more about a verb in the sentence.

  • The fire engine runs fast.
  • Listen to his speech carefully.
  • I browse the web frequently.
  • It rained hard.

Click Here : Possessive Nouns

An adverb describes more about an adjective in the sentence.

  • The news is very surprising!
  • The coffee is extremely hot, so be careful.
  • Nature is really amazing!

Click Here : Singular and Plural Nouns

An adverb modifies another adverb in the sentence.

  • It rains very hard.
  • Computers run much faster these days.
  • I clean my room less frequently because I am busy.

Read Also: Count Nouns vs Non-Count Nouns

Commonly, adjectives can be changed to adverbs by adding 'ly'.

  • slow – slowly
  • quick – quickly
  • comfortable – comfortably
  • loud – loudly
  • clear – clearly

Read Also : 'Be' Verbs

To change adjectives ending in 'y' into adverbs, change the 'y' to 'i' and add 'ly'.

  • happy – happily
  • easy – easily

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